COMPUTER GLOSSARY (Alphabet-A)

1. Abacus
First mechanical calculating tool that was in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral system and is still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere.

2. Analog Computer
a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved

3. Altair BASICAn interpreter for the BASIC programming language that ran on the MITS Altair 8800 and subsequent S-100 buscomputers. It was Microsoft’s first product (as Micro-Soft), distributed by MITS under a contract.

4. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
A digital circuit that performs integer arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers.

5. Accumulator
A register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored. Without a register like an accumulator, it would be necessary to write the result of each calculation (addition, multiplication, shift, etc.) to main memory, perhaps only to be read right back again for use in the next operation.

6. Alphanumeric Keys

A combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.

7. ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

8. API
Application Program Interface. It specifies a software component in terms of its operations

9. ANSI
The American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in US.
Standard that is used for converting the keystroke into the corresponding bits.

10. ASCII Codes
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters.

11. All-in-One Printer

Hybrid Document Reproduction Apparatus (HYDRA) printer is also known as All-in-One Printer. It is a device that consolidates the capabilities of multiple devices in one machine.

12. Auxiliary Memory
Also known as auxiliary storage, secondary storage, secondary memory or external memory, is used to store a large amount of data at lesser cost per byte than primary memory.

13. Archival Storage
In computers, archival storage is storage for data that may not be actively needed but is kept for possible future use or for record-keeping purposes.

14. Algorithm
A step-by-step procedure used to solve a problem

15. Assembly Language
An assembly language is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture’s machine code instructions.

16. Assembler
A computer program which translates assembly language to an object file or machine language format

17. Application software
Programs designed specifically to address general-purpose application, special-purpose application.

18. Argument
When the value the function uses to perform a calculation, including a number, text, or a cell reference acts as an operand, it is known as argument.

19. Active cell
The insertion of a row and a column is called a cell. The cell in which we currently work is called active cell

20. ARP
Address Resolution protocol. Telecommunication protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks.

21. Absolute address
A fixed address in memory.

22. Accessing
Getting data from a cell located in a different cell

23. Amperstand
Is used for concatenation of text

24. Address bar
Bar used to type a URL

25. Antivirus
Software utility which scans the hard disk for viruses and tries to remove them if found.

26. Authentication
Process of ensuring and confirming the identity of the user before revealing any information to the user.

27. Access Control
Selective restriction of access to a place or other resources

28. ALTER
Command used to delete a particular column in queries in database.

29. Artificial Language
Languages of a typically very limited size which emerge either in computer simulations between artificial agents, robot interactions or controlled psychological experiments with humans.

30. Active Server Page
Also known as Classic ASP or ASP Classic, was Microsoft’s first server-side script engine for dynamically.

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